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Amber Valley: The Legacy of Western Canada's Largest Black Settlement


Only a few buildings of the pioneer village are still standing today. (Provincial Archives of Alberta)

Amber Valley, Alberta, holds a significant place in the history of black settlements in Western Canada. The story of this community is a testament to the resilience, perseverance, and contribution of black settlers in the region. The history of Amber Valley dates back to the early 20th century when a group of African American settlers sought to establish a new life in Alberta, Canada.


The roots of Amber Valley trace back to the migration of black settlers from the United States to Western Canada in the early 1900s. Seeking freedom from racial segregation and discrimination, these individuals and families were drawn to the promise of land and opportunity in Canada. This period marked the influx of black immigrants to Alberta, where they aimed to establish their own agricultural communities and build a better future for themselves and their descendants.




In 1910, the Canadian government, to encourage settlement and development in the prairies, offered free homesteads to settlers. This policy served as a catalyst for many black families from the United States, particularly from Oklahoma, seeking to escape the racial tensions and economic hardships prevalent in their home country. As a result, a group of approximately 1,000 black settlers moved to the Athabasca region of Alberta, where they founded the community known as Amber Valley.


The settlers encountered numerous challenges as they worked to establish and cultivate their new homesteads. They faced harsh climate conditions, limited access to essential resources, and the need to clear and develop the land for agricultural purposes. Despite these obstacles, the settlers demonstrated remarkable perseverance and determination. Their hard work and resilience allowed them to carve out a life for themselves in the Canadian prairies.


Amber Valley quickly became one of the largest black settlements in Western Canada. The community prospered, with the settlers engaging in farming, ranching, and other agricultural activities. They also established schools, churches, and community organizations, creating a vibrant and close-knit social fabric. The settlers of Amber Valley not only built homes and farms but also established a strong identity and sense of belonging in their new Canadian environment.


The settlers of Amber Valley also faced the challenges of prejudice and discrimination. While they had escaped the overt racial oppression of the United States, they still encountered discrimination and bigotry in Canada. Despite this, the community persevered and made significant contributions to the development of the region.


Farmer J. D. Edwards beside a grain field in 1940 Amber Valley, Alberta.(Glenbow Archives)

The descendants of the original settlers have continued to play a vital role in the cultural, social, and economic life of Alberta. They have contributed to various sectors of society, including agriculture, education, politics, and the arts. The story of Amber Valley stands as a testament to the enduring legacy of the black settlers and their descendants in Western Canada.


In recognition of its historical significance, efforts have been made to preserve and celebrate the legacy of the Amber Valley community. Various initiatives, including heritage preservation projects, cultural events, and educational programs, have been undertaken to commemorate the contribution of the black settlers and ensure that their story is not forgotten.



Today, Amber Valley serves as a reminder of the courage and resilience of the black pioneers who sought a new beginning in Canada. The legacy of this community continues to inspire and educate future generations about the important role played by black settlers in shaping the history and diversity of Western Canada.

As a significant black settlement in Western Canada, Amber Valley's history serves as a poignant reminder of the determination and strength of the human spirit in the face of adversity. The enduring legacy of the community and its descendants underscores the importance of recognizing and celebrating the contributions of diverse communities to the rich tapestry of Canadian history.

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